What is Obesity?
 
Obesity is the abnormal and excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissues that disrupts health. It usually occurs when more calories are consumed with meals than the energy consumed per day. Apart from this, genetic, metabolic factors, socioeconomic factors, lifestyle and drugs are among the factors that affect obesity. Today, it has become an important health problem for every society, especially in developed countries. Morbid obesity is among the first two preventable causes of diseases that cause death, along with smoking. There are many diseases caused or worsened by obesity. These include cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gastroesophageal reflux, asthma, high cholesterol, joint problems, hypertension, sleep apnea syndrome. Body Mass Index (BMI) - Body Mass Index (BMI) calculation based on height and weight is used in the calculation of obesity: BMI over 30 is considered obese, over 40 morbid obese, over 50 super obese by the World Health Organization. is.
 
 
What is Obesity Surgery (Bariatric Surgery)?
 
Those who cannot lose weight or regain weight despite diet, exercise and pharmacological (medication) treatments; It is the most effective treatment method applied to help morbidly obese patients lose weight and improve their quality of life. The most important goals of bariatric surgery are; For these purposes, patients who are candidates for obesity surgery are subjected to extensive preoperative evaluations and surgery is recommended only to patients who are eligible as a result. These evaluations are carried out in a multidisciplinary approach by a team of surgeons, endocrinologists, psychiatrists and dieticians, and when necessary, physicians from units such as cardiology and chest diseases specialists. Obesity surgery candidate patient, after a psychological evaluation to determine health problems, nutritional habits, nutrition and clinical condition, mood and eating behavior disorders, the appropriate surgical technique is determined and prepared for surgery. Today, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (sleeve gastrectomy) and laparoscopic gastric bypass (gastric bypass surgery) are the most common methods of obesity surgery in the world.
 
 
Sleeve Gastrectomy (Tube Stomach Surgery)
 
It is one of the most preferred methods in obesity surgery in the world. Surgery can be performed laparoscopic (closed), robotic (closed) or open. Laparoscopic method is used most frequently. In the operation, up to 70% of the stomach is removed. The remaining stomach remains in the form of a tube like the continuation of the esophagus. With this surgery, it is aimed to reduce the patient's calorie intake by reducing the volume of the stomach and to prevent the release of Ghrelin, the appetite hormone released from the extracted fundus section, and to reduce appetite. Patients are discharged if no complications occur after hospitalization for 3-4 days after the operation. Patients can start to eat normal food after consuming liquid and soft foods for an average of 1 month. In the first two years after surgery, it is possible to lose approximately 70-80% of excess weight with proper diet and physical exercise.
 
 
Roux En Y Gastric Bypass (Stomach Bypass)
 
It is one of the most preferred methods in obesity surgery. In surgery, the stomach is divided into two parts, one large and the other small. The newly formed small stomach (30 -50 ml) and small intestine are reunited by skipping (bypassing) the remaining stomach and duodenum. The small volume of the stomach here aims to provide a feeling of satiety with less food. Then, the secretions of the bypassed stomach and duodenum are rejoined into the digestive system with a second connection and the surgery is completed. By leaving 75-150 cm between the two connection points in this surgery, less absorption of the food taken orally is ensured. Thus, surgery that restricts both metabolic and food intake is performed. Patients are discharged if no complications occur after hospitalization for 3-4 days after the operation. Patients can start to eat normal food after consuming liquid and soft foods for an average of 1 month. Patients continue to lose weight for 1.5-2 years, and 70-80% of excess weight can be lost with proper diet and physical exercise. Patients undergoing gastric bypass may need to take daily multivitamin, calcium and iron supplements throughout life.