What is the Gallbladder?
 
Gall bladder; It is an organ located just below the liver, adjacent to the liver. It functions as the storage of bile, which is produced in the liver and helps digestion of fats. The gallbladder duct (cystic duct) with a length of 1 - 5 cm is poured into the main bile duct coming from the liver. The main bile duct (common bile duct) opens into the second part of the duodenum (duodenum). The pancreatic duct where digestive enzymes from the pancreas are poured into this part is also poured.
 
Normally, the gallbladder is filled with bile during the between meals. With the meal, the gall bladder is stimulated when the meals reach the duodenum and the bile in the gallbladder empties into the main bile duct and duodenum.
 
 
What Are Gallstones?
 
Gallstones are small stones that form in the gallbladder. They may be like thick mud or stones up to 10 cm in size, filling the entire gall bladder.
 
In case of stones in the gallbladder, gallbladder duct (cystic duct) may not be completely emptied, in which case inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) may develop. Passing through the gallbladder canal, it may fall into the main bile duct (common bile duct), in this case, conditions such as inflammation of the main bile duct (cholangitis), jaundice, elevated liver enzymes may develop. Inflammation of the pancreatic gland (pancreatitis) may also develop due to small gallstones.

 

What Are Gallstones?
 
Gallstones are small stones that form in the gallbladder. They may be like thick mud or stones up to 10 cm in size, filling the entire gall bladder.
 
In case of stones in the gallbladder, gallbladder duct (cystic duct) may not be completely emptied, in which case inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) may develop. Passing through the gallbladder canal, it may fall into the main bile duct (common bile duct), in this case, conditions such as inflammation of the main bile duct (cholangitis), jaundice, elevated liver enzymes may develop. Inflammation of the pancreatic gland (pancreatitis) may also develop due to small gallstones.
 
 
How Do Gallstones Cause Complaints?
 
They can cause abdominal pain, usually located in the upper right side of the abdomen, under the ribs. Back pain reflected on the right shoulder or waist can also cause complaints such as nausea and vomiting. Very severe abdominal pain, abdominal pain radiating to the right shoulder, jaundice and fever are indicators of a serious condition due to gallstones.
 
 
How Are Gallstones Detected?
 
Stones in the gallbladder can be viewed by ultrasonography. Further imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, endoscopic ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be required according to your clinical complaints, physical examination findings, and the results of your laboratory tests.
 
 
Treatment
 
After your complaints, physical examination findings, radiological and laboratory tests are evaluated, your appropriate treatment method will be determined. If you do not have any complaints, if a small stone or mud is detected in the gallbladder during routine checks, it can be monitored without surgery; however, over the years, you may develop symptoms or develop gall bladder inflammation.
The main treatment for gallstones is surgical removal of the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). Gall bladder surgery can be performed by closed (laparoscopic) or open method.
 
 
What is Closed Gallbladder Surgery (Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy)?
 
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy is a surgery to remove the gallbladder by swelling the abdomen with gas, without making a large incision with a camera and thin hand tools.
 
What Are the Risks of the Surgery?
 
Risks such as bleeding, bile duct injuries adjacent to the gallbladder, bile leaks, intestinal injuries, infection may develop in the postoperative period.

 

What kind of process awaits you after the surgery?
 
After surgery, patients can usually be discharged from the hospital the next morning. Since it is an operation that does not affect your digestive system very much, it is generally not expected to have a problem with eating and drinking, but it is recommended to avoid gas-causing foods and drinks in the first period after surgery.
 
Gallbladder Polyps
 
Gallbladder polyps are finger-shaped protrusions that develop from the mucosa that forms the inner lining of the gallbladder. They are usually detected by ultrasonography or during pathological examination after gallbladder surgery. They are generally benign and do not have cancer risk, but gall bladder surgery is recommended for patients older than 50 years, polyps larger than 1 cm, large-based and rapid-growing polyps because of the risk of cancer. Gallbladder polyp surgery can be done with a closed method.
 
 
Gallbladder Cancer
 
Gallbladder cancer is a rapidly progressing cancer originating from the gallbladder. It is more common in women in their 60-70s. Although the cause is not known exactly, the risk of chronic gallbladder inflammation, stones larger than 3 cm, and polyps larger than 1 cm has increased the risk of gallbladder cancer. It may cause complaints such as weight loss, jaundice, abdominal pain, palpable swelling. It can be detected by ultrasonography and computed tomography may be recommended for cancer staging. Surgical treatment options vary depending on the spread of the disease. For an early cancer limited to the gallbladder wall, removal of the gallbladder alone may be sufficient, but in more advanced cases, a larger area (sometimes half of the liver) may be required together with the liver bed and bile ducts. Gallbladder cancer can also be diagnosed by pathological evaluation of the gallbladder after gallbladder surgery. Therefore, it is necessary to follow up the pathology result after gallbladder surgery.