Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are a type of tumor that can be found in any part of the digestive system and manifests itself by changing the natural structure of the normal cell. It is generally seen between the ages of 40-80. It is seen in 6-15 million people a year in the world. It is most commonly found in the stomach and then in the small intestine. Generally, those smaller than 5 cm have a better prognosis. Important indicators for risk are the size of the mass and its growth rate under the microscope.
In gastrointestinal stromal tumors, there are usually no symptoms at an early stage. Those smaller than 2 cm are often detected in incidental endoscopies or computed tomography performed for any other reason. Symptoms that may occur are abdominal pain, bleeding, anemia, abdominal mass, dyspepsia and early satiety. Complaints generally increase in proportion to the size of the tumor. If it is seen in the esophagus, swallowing difficulty is also seen.
Endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or computed tomography (CT) are used for diagnosis.
The standard treatment of GISTs is complete surgical removal of the mass. This intervention is performed by open surgery, laparoscopic surgery and robotic surgery methods according to the diameter and location of the tumor. Endoscopic removal methods can be used especially in small GISTs located in the stomach. In some cases, in addition to surgical treatment, medication and radiation (radiotherapy) therapy are also used in resistant cases.