Weight loss surgery is modifying the gastrointestinal system by surgical procedures which restricts the amount of food intake, and / or creates malabsorbtion.
After all conservative methods, weight regain has a possibility of approximately 95%. Currently weight loss surgery is the sole method with long term durability.
Patients may lose 30 to 50 percent of their excess weight in the first six months (this is 30 to 40 kgs on average), and 77 percent of excess weight as early as 12 months after surgery (50 to 60 kgs). Another study showed that patients could maintain a 50 to 60 percent loss of excess weight 10 to 14 years after surgery.
Weight loss surgery is offered according to the body mass index ( body weight (in kilograms)/ body height2 (in meters ). The patients typically qualify for bariatric surgery if they have a BMI of 35-39, with specific significant health problems like Type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea or high blood pressure.gastroesophageal reflux, joint problems. A BMI of 40 or higher also is a qualifying factor.Recently, for type 2 diabetes patients with poor medical control of blood glucose levels with a BMI of 30-35, weight loss surgery is suggested as a considerable treatment.
There are several gastrointestinal operations for weight loss surgery. However, the five procedures mentioned by The International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO) are Sleeve Gastrectomy, Roux en Y Gastric Bypass, Adjustable Gastric Banding, Biliopancreatic Diversion and One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass. Of these Sleeve Gastrectomy and Roux en Y Gastric Bypass constitute 85% of all operations.
While weight-loss surgery can help reduce your risk of weight-related health problems — such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease and sleep apnea — the operations are still major gastrointestinal procedures. The patients may need to meet certain medical guidelines to qualify for weight-loss surgery. However; within optimal circumstances such as experienced surgical team and carefully selected patients the results are perfect. The rates of complications are comparable with laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is called as the most performed elective general surgical procedure.
After laparoscopic surgery patients can take care of themselves within 2-3 days. Jogging or biking is possible in two weeks. Weightlifting is not recommended before 4-6 months
After laparoscopic weight loss surgery, patients will receive clear liquids on postoperative day one. Then, the foods are gradually liberated. While, expecting the patients loosing weight from fat tissue, maintaining lean body mass is an important target. Therefore high protein, low fat meals are recommended
Vomiting should never be considered as “normal” after weight loss surgery. First of all a surgical complication should be investigated. In case of no abnormality related to the operation, the patient’s eating habits and mental health should be evaluated